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Sailboat Review: Oyster 495 Combines Performance and Power In Under 50 Feet

  • By Kimball Livingston
  • October 27, 2023

Oyster 495 sailboat

Few boats would merit a glance from a savvy, experienced skipper looking to consolidate the best qualities of his performance cruiser and his motoryacht into just one boat.

Someone might even ask: “Are you kidding me? Can you do that?”

Enter the Oyster 495.

As the smallest yacht the company has developed from concept since 2005, the 495 is rigorously detailed. It is true to the heritage of a builder where a 50-footer has become the entry-level model. 

For this latest raised-salon offering, Oyster created a new facility in Hythe, on the Southampton shores of southern England. The aim is to build 12 boats a year, and sales to date suggest that this figure is not overly ambitious. 

I encountered Genevieve , the well-traveled Hull No. 1, in Southern California, where the boat had been delivered to the owner in Santa Barbara after being shown extensively in Europe. She was purchased to replace a performance cruiser and a powerboat. 

First impressions count, and the 495 makes a great one. If you’re switching over from a different brand, forget about bringing along your plates and glassware. All of that is provided, with subtle logos and fitted stowage. Mood lighting is available at the touch of a button. The TV raises and disappears with another button. In the guest stateroom forward, hatches overhead open in opposite directions. The queen berth in the owner’s stateroom could be a boat-show sales tool, but the cabin top is equipped for the lee cloths you will need when the boat is doing what it is meant to do: go places. 

To that end, an aluminum mast with electric furling is standard, but Genevieve is equipped with a Seldén carbon rig with in-mast electric furling and a hydraulics package including a mainsheet, vang, outhaul, backstay, and ­in-boom ram. In operation, it was whisper-quiet. 

The twin wheels offer clear sightlines from secure footing, along with command posts that have buttons to deploy and furl sails, and to adjust everything adjustable without straining a finger or risking a hangnail. Lewmar EVO primaries are handy, just outboard of the helm stations. Optional dual thrusters make everyone a hero going and coming to the dock, and smaller items such as pre-rigged preventers speak to that shadowy concierge who seems to have been everywhere. 

With four of us aboard, the cockpit was more than ­generous. I imagined many sociable scenes to come as the sails came out. The Yanmar saildrive was so quiet, it had to go off for me to even notice it had been on. Put that down to sandwich insulation glued, not screwed. 

The breeze was single digits, not enough to make the boat light up under a 105 percent jib, and we were dragging a wide transom and two rudders. Nevertheless, it was enjoyable sailing. I also appreciated seeing the cabin house square to the seating, to make a comfortable backrest looking aft, stretched out on passage. Rounding the forward backing the way some manufacturers do may work when you’re not going anywhere, but what is a boat for? 

The cockpit is laid out to walk on a single level back to a full-beam lazarette, which has ample stowage and access to the steering, backstay, exhaust and seacocks. Step back farther, and you are stepping down a reverse transom to a shower and an electronically operated swim platform. When the boat is stern-tied, that will be the boarding ladder. 

Belowdecks is bright, with close attention to ­ventilation. The opening coachroof windows in the salon will delight passengers in a tropical anchorage with the breeze wafting through. Batteries and tankage are centered under the salon sole, focusing the weight where it belongs. A U-shaped galley, two steps down to port, places most of the cook’s needs at hand in a space where it will be easy to brace underway, and the cook is not isolated from crew and guests. The twin sinks are on centerline for efficient drainage. 

The saloon table lowers to bed height for those who are overblessed with kids or grandkids, and the step-down nav station is separated but not isolated. A swing-out computer screen is here, along with CZone control and monitoring instead of fuse panels. A freezer is abaft the nav station, where it won’t see a lot of traffic unless it’s stocked with ice cream for those kids. 

Opposite the nav station, twin doors open wide to an engine compartment thoughtfully laid out to be serviced without provoking naughty words. Clear labeling matters, and I liked seeing the Panda generator within a sound-­insulated compartment.  

All the way aft, the owner’s stateroom has 6 feet, 4 inches of headroom, a sofa, cedar-lined lockers, escape hatches, and Oyster’s signature vertical portlights for a special view of the world. Forward of the salon is a cozy over/under double that shares a head and shower with the bright and airy forward stateroom. Nowhere above or belowdecks does the level of fit-and-finish fall short. 

Oyster describes the hull as an “overspecified laminate resin structure with a combination of stringers and frames for extreme strength and durability.” I believe it. Genevieve had the L-shaped standard keel and a draft of 7 feet, 5 inches. A shoal-draft keel is an option. 

Lunch waited ashore, ­creating an opportunity to ­observe how magically the sails disappeared and how comfortably the boat motored at 9-plus knots. It’s replacing a powerboat, remember. There was also a moment to ­demonstrate that, under power, the Oyster 495 will spin in its own length. That gave me a grin too.

Oyster 495 Specifications

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Oyster 495: the dream boat that sets the bar

Sam Fortescue

  • Sam Fortescue
  • January 2, 2023

Oyster have long set the standard for luxurious blue-water cruisers, and the Oyster 495 is the new baby in the range. Even if you’re not in the market for one, it’s nice to dream, says Sam Fortescue

Product Overview

  • High build quality
  • Very stable
  • Modern hull shape
  • Flexible sail plan
  • Accessible technical spaces
  • Lots of deck stowage
  • Numerous interior steps
  • Limited clothes storage
  • Captive main/jib halyard


Price as reviewed:.

Following an era which saw Oyster yachts getting progressively bigger and bigger, the iconic British boatbuilder has shifted its gaze back to the sort of boats that made it famous. And the first fruit of this welcome development is the comely Oyster 495.

The best part of £2 million all told, she is eye-wateringly expensive. So why sail her?

Well, this iconic British brand has long set the standard when it comes to offshore and ocean luxury cruising yachts, so it’s worth seeing, if only to measure other boats against.

A man wearing tan trousers and a black top at the helm of a large yacht

The cockpit is deep, secure and well-sheltered. Credit: Morten Strauch

Even if you haven’t got that kind of loose change in your pocket, it’s nice to dream, isn’t it?

Freshly designed from the keel up, this is a that boat aims to combine comfort, quality build and reliable blue-water passagemaking with features found on the bigger boats.

Drawn by Humphreys Yacht Design, the Oyster 495 is the first new model since Richard Hadida bought the business in 2018.

‘She’s a go-anywhere adventure machine capable of taking her owners to the four corners of the globe,’ says Hadida, for whom this first boat has been built with a huge array of extras.

Oyster 495: a new icon

Approaching the Tuborg Marina in Copenhagen to join ship for the overnight passage to Kiel, there was absolutely no mistaking this boat, whose glossy black carbon mast gave her away long before I spotted the trademark Oyster eyebrow.

Hull number one, which is on a promotional world tour lasting well into 2023, also has a bold turquoise vinyl hull wrap.

A man sailing a boat

Solo sailing is feasible thanks to almost all controls being push-button. Credit: Morten Strauch

In line with recent thinking on hull shape , the Oyster 495 punches a plumb bow into the seas and carries much of her beam well aft – noticeably more so than previous models.

Such a hull form resists heeling and reduces the need for ballast.

Halyards on a boat mast

The halyards make off to the mast and can be tensioned by winches, but must be moused to be lowered. Credit: Morten Strauch

‘With the twin rudder configuration that we have adopted as standard on all our Oyster designs since the 885 model, it provides us with more flexibility to carry a higher proportion of form stability by increasing the power of the aft hull sections,’ says naval architect Tom Humphreys.

‘This is still introduced sensitively to ensure motions and control in waves is not compromised.’

Generous accommodation

Together with the slightly higher beam and topsides compared to the 46, it creates a lot of volume below for the master cabin and extra headroom in the fo’c’sle.

As is typical for Oyster, the mast is keel-stepped. It intrudes slightly into the corridor forward, but does a better job of transferring rig forces to the keel and reduces chainplate loading.

Our test boat had the full carbon mast option from Selden with in-mast furling, and in some ways, this is a bit of an oxymoron.

A anchor and bowsprit on an Pyster 495

Headsail furling is electric on the Oyster 495, with a double bow roller in the integral bow sprit. Credit: Morten Strauch

The carbon mast adds nearly £100,000 to the pricetag for a big weight saving of some 200kg, but the mandrel and furling gear puts some of that weight back in.

On the other hand, it reduces the sail area by 10 per cent and prohibits the use of performance-enhancing battens.

‘You get more sailing done this way,’ explains sales director Richard Gibson, and that is a key point in a blue-water yacht.

The sail plan is designed with an efficient 54m2 jib, which can be set up for self-tacking, or remain on tracks set well inboard for good tight angles upwind.

Then there’s an attractive moulded-in bowsprit which carries two tack points for asymmetric or reaching sails, while beefy padeyes along the raised bulwarks give you heaps of options for fixing the blocks needed to run sheets and guys.

A cockpit on an Oyster 495

A large sprayhood, and an optional bimini or cockpit tent offer good protection from the elements. Credit: Morten Strauch

As well as push-button controls for the mast furling and outhaul, this test boat has the optional hydraulic mainsail trim.

Effectively reversing the mainsheet to be trimmed in the boom and not on deck, this clever kit was first developed by Wally superyachts.

The mainsheet is spliced to a strop on the deck behind the helm and a ram hidden in the boom does the trimming, removing trailing ropes in the cockpit.

Just the jib sheets come back to the cockpit, because all the halyards are designed to be handled at the mast.

An Oyster 495 yacht with a blue hull and black sails

The mainsheet control is hydraulic and hidden inside the boom. Credit: Richard Langdon

It keeps the cockpit remarkably tidy, but requires you to spend time crouched at the foot of the mast to launch or douse a reaching or running sail.

Similarly, the jib and main halyards terminate with loops over a mast fitting which is tensioned then pegged off.

As they are cut to this length with the sails hoisted, you can’t lower them in a hurry.

You need to unload the hook using a winch, then tie on the provided mousing line. Tidy, yes; practical, no.

Hunting for wind

Now, we had lamentably low wind during our test sail, and the delivery team were intent on reaching Kiel by daybreak, so we spent much of our 24 hours aboard with the motor running and the sails furled.

And here, it must be said that the boat performs very well.

At an optimal 2,300rpm, the efficient Yanmar 110hp shoved us along at 8 knots through oily calm seas, consuming 8.7 litres of diesel per hour.

That’s roughly 1 litre per nautical mile, or nearly 4 days and nights of motoring on a full tank of 800 litres.

The deck of an Oyster 495 yacht

Excellent deck stowage is located aft of the single-point mainsheet attachment. Credit: Morten Strauch

And though the engine sits in the traditional spot beneath the companionway, with the chart table to starboard and the galley to port, it is very well muffled.

Crucially for the workhorse on a blue-water cruising boat, access is possible via hatches on all four sides of the engine block, while the compartment itself offers plenty of room for additional equipment.

During two passages of moderate wind, the skipper obligingly let us set the main and jib – a slow but simple question of pressing buttons, with jib sheet winches within easy reach of the helm on the coaming.

She remained light and responsive on the helm and at one point, we clocked up a decent 5.1 knots of boat speed, fetching easily into 8 knots AWS.

A drinks fridge on the cockpit of an Oyster 495

Oyster is proud of its cockpit table, which contains a drinks fridge. Credit: Morten Strauch

Conditions didn’t permit much more, but polars indicate that she will perform up to about 32º true wind angle, quickly accelerating to 7 knots upwind in a 10-knot breeze.

Broad reaching with the 197 m² asymmetric, she can manage 11 knots in a blow.

Despite being resin-infused, the boat has a relatively heavy glassfibre construction and weighs in at 21 tonnes without fuel, water, food, gear or crew.

Seating down below on an Oyster 495

The saloon is large and extremely light thanks to the trademark deck saloon windows

Her sail area to displacement ratio of 16.1 is that of a solid offshore cruiser, while the waterline length to displacement ratio of 203 promises a little more power.

It gives her a very solid feel on the water, like her bigger siblings, but limits performance.

‘You want the boat to be the destination in a way,’ says Tom Humphreys. And like all Oysters, the 495 is just that.

The trademark raised centre cockpit means plenty of aft deck for lounging, fishing or blowing up tenders, while the seating, with its central fold-up table, is deep and well protected.

The optional cockpit tent and a bimini would be a boon for warm water or Baltic sailing .

A navigation station on a yacht

A proper forward facing chart table is essential for ocean navigation and as a work station

Deck, rigging and underwater lighting may be a little showy for some, but do create real atmosphere. The heart of the boat, though, is its large saloon area.

Deep upholstery on either side provides space to put your feet up and relax, gather with friends, sit down for a meal around the eight-person table or even watch a movie on the pop-up TV.

A double bed on a boat covered in cushions and a beige throw

Luxury styling in the cabins hasn’t made Oyster forget practicalities such as lee cloths and handholds.

The space communicates nicely with a very well-found galley to port and the chart table to starboard, and there are handrails to help you make your way everywhere.

The finish is Oyster to the core and styling has been revitalised with a new superyacht inspired look that is all geometric relief, pale wood and Nordic lamps.

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One step too far

If I had one criticism of this otherwise spotless interior, it would be the number of little level changes that connect the spaces.

We counted 12 steps in total, besides the companionway.

While they maximise the volume, they also present a tripping risk.

The bow of a boat cutting through the waves

The hull form includes a plumb bow to stretch waterline length, and carries its beam well aft, controlled by twin rudders. Credit: Brian Carlin

One of the reasons for these steps is clear: the saloon sole is raised somewhat in order to create space for the tankage beneath, as well as enjoy the views from the deckhouse windows.

And there, at least, the benefit is overwhelming, because you can easily inspect each tank, as well as the batteries and other equipment.

Custom joinery adapts the galley storage to your crockery and glassware.

An oven and galley area on a yacht

The galley of the Oyster 495 is well laid out for use at sea

Standard is a four-burner hob and oven from GN Espace, side opening boat fridge plus an optional freezer and microwave.

Another highlight is the huge chart table.

There are those that scoff at the waste of space in a digital age, but anyone undertaking blue-water cruising knows the value of this space.

A man at the helm of a boat

The saloon deckhouse leaves the foredeck clear for sail handling, lounging, or dinghy stowage. Credit: Morten Strauch

B&G instruments are the standard choice. The main interfaces are touchscreen displays that drive C-Zone digital switching , but key kit still features two-pole manual switches.

‘We wanted to introduce tech into the boat, but we had to make sure that if something breaks down mid-ocean you could fix it,’ explains Gibson.

Down steps aft, the owner’s cabin is clearly inspired by the big Oysters.

A boat engine

The engine compartment is well insulated and has ample space for a genset and other systems. Credit: Morten Strauch

The island bed measures 140cm across and features an elaborate fabric headboard that shows off the new styling to maximum effect.

There’s the option of a huge TV on the forward bulkhead, plus a vanity table and a sofa.

A luxurious ensuite heads features a separate shower, reached – you’ve guessed it – down another step.

The second cabin lies in the fo’c’sle and it runs to another good sized semi-island bed.

A yacht with a blue hull and white sails sailing in the open ocean

The boat remains a medium-heavy displacement cruiser, but the new hull shape adds extra performance. Credit: Richard Langdon

Having shared this space overnight with the photographer, I can attest to the comfort, and the natural light.

There is a third cabin to starboard with a pair of useful bunks, sharing the forward heads and shower. Finish quality is, as you’d expect, excellent.

In the end, Oyster has been ambitious in trying to squeeze in the features of its larger boats onto this design.

But it has been a successful project and, even as we hove in sight of Kiel’s green approaches, it was all too easy to imagine settling in and heeding the call of the high seas.

Verdict on the Oyster 495

New focus from Oyster and some modern hull design courtesy of Humphreys have given the Oyster 495 a modest performance boost and some welcome contemporary features.

However, she remains very true to Oyster’s keystone values of safety, seaworthiness and comfort. And in that sense, at least, she is not a radical boat.

Her layout, too, would be familiar to an Oyster 49 owner from 2001.

An aerial view of a yacht sailing on a blue sea

The Oyster 495 is built for serious long-distance cruising. Credit: Brian Carlin

There’s plenty of technology here – digital switching, plotters galore, good AV options and hydraulic sail controls. But it is not dressed up to be flashy.

The boat is solid, well-built and beautifully finished. She is easy to handle, capable and well organised.

Our only misgivings were about the less-than-easy halyard handling, and reliance on hydraulics for sail trim.

It’s all very neat, but is that really the priority for blue-water cruising?

As to whether she represents the world’s best 50ft blue-water yacht, time will tell, but with 16 boats sold off plan, some buyers clearly think so.

Would the Oyster 495 suit you and your crew?

Oysters are the stuff of dreams, and the new 495 is no exception.

If money were no object, and it needs not to be for this boat (our tricked-out test boat cost £1.6m ex-VAT or £1.92m inc VAT), then this is a vessel custom made to fulfil blue-water cruising hopes.

She would best suit a family with a steady flow of visiting friends, or a mix of older and younger kids.

A woman sailing a yacht with a white hull and black sails

The integral bowsprit on the Oyster 495 facilitates the setting of various offwind sails to maintain passage speeds. Credit: Brian Carlin

The disparity between the aft and fo’c’sle cabins rules out a project involving two couples.

She would also work well with a couple and some paid hands, although the ease of sail control and trim makes her perfectly viable for sailing solo or two-up.

There’s no reason that you couldn’t take the 495 up Britain’s rivers and estuaries, with her 2.28m draught and option for a 1.83m shoal keel.

But a boat of this capability demands to cover miles.

Sail round Britain , up to Svalbard , round the Mediterranean or around the world – the boat could undoubtedly handle it all with aplomb – but make sure you’re stretching her legs.

Solid, well-built and beautifully finished

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First look: Oyster 495

Yachting World

  • June 30, 2021

Rupert Holmes gets the latest on the first new sub-50ft yacht launched by Oyster in many years, the Oyster 495.

sailboatdata oyster

The Oyster 495 is the first all-new sub 50ft Oyster model in 16 years and is one of the most important new models for the revitalised company since CEO Richard Hadida took the helm in 2018.

It follows the successful Oyster 565 that first hit the water two years ago, of which 17 have already been sold.

A huge effort has gone into developing the Oyster 495, including input from Oyster’s founder Richard Matthews, with the aim of refining the boat as much as possible, as well as making the best use of space.

It’s instantly recognisable as part of Oyster’s G6 family and retains a well-proportioned elegance – something that’s not easily achieved when scaling a concept down to a smaller size.

The 495’s styling includes many features which have already become a trademark of Oyster’s larger models, such as the flush foredeck, wrap-around deck saloon windows and triple seascape windows in the aft owner’s cabin — all sure to make the yacht stand out.

sailboatdata oyster

A hefty lightship displacement of 21 tonnes means the Oyster 495 will retain much of the big boat feel of its stablemates, even in heavy weather. Humphreys Yacht Design has drawn a powerful high stability hull, with maximum beam carried well aft, twin rudders and a characteristically long waterline.

It’s a shape that promises relaxed and comfortable passagemaking at high average speeds and low angles of heel, even upwind.

Oyster seems to recognise that for many owners ease of handling is a key reason for buying a smaller boat. The push-button sail handling systems from the larger models have therefore been retained. The electric mainsail furling is operated from the helm stations, while electric winches are standard, and the headsail furler can be upgraded to electric. A conventional fully-battened mainsail is offered as an option, as are bow and stern thrusters.

There’s more light in the galley and chart table areas than previous models thanks to the deck saloon windows having been extended further aft. The galley is in the traditional Oyster position, at the side of the centre cockpit, and offers plenty of worktop and stowage in a configuration that should suit use at sea.

Excellent owners’ cabins are also a key element of Oyster’s DNA and this is an area that has clearly been prioritised for this model. The broad stern sections that help give the boat form stability and sail carrying ability produce an immense amount of space. As a result, this part of the boat has a level of volume, comfort, stowage and style that’s rarely seen on a 50-footer.

Forward of the full-width saloon are a small Pullman-style cabin to starboard and a modest sized guest double forward. These share a heads compartment with a separate shower stall.

sailboatdata oyster

A high level of standard equipment includes Czone digital switching, allowing all lighting and equipment to be controlled from MFDs at both helm stations and the navigation station. There’s also internal and external mood lighting.

It’s clear that this will be a very different boat compared to existing sub-50ft Oysters – there have been enormous advances in yacht design and fit out during that time.

The Oyster 475 , launched in the mid-2010s was a great boat, even though it was a stretched version of the Oyster 46 that originally dates from 2005.

However, the Oyster 495 is demonstrably a very much larger vessel – waterline length and beam are 190cm and 35cm larger than those of the 475. Indeed they even exceed the measurements of the Oyster 545 . The payoff for the extra volume arguably comes in the comparatively high displacement and price.

Oyster is clearly betting heavily on strong demand after what Hadida describes as an “exceptional” year, particularly for the relatively new 565 and 595 models. The 495 will therefore be built at a newly-acquired dedicated facility at Hythe, where the Empress flying boats were once built on the banks of Southampton Water.

A number of orders have already been taken for the 495 and the first boat is scheduled to be afloat in 2022.

Oyster 495 specifications:

LOA: 16.1m / 52ft 8in Hull length: 15.15m / 49ft 7in LWL: 14.27m / 46ft 8in Beam: 4.77m / 15ft 8in Draught standard keel: 2.28m / 7ft 5in, shoal keel 1.83m / 6ft 0in Displacement: 21,000kg / 46,300lb Price ex VAT: £975,000 Builder: www.oysteryachts.com

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Oyster 545 Sailing v2


The Oyster 545 has been developed from the Oyster 54 with several specification and styling upgrades. Her deck features all flush hatches and the interior has been subtly redesigned and styled.

Her clean hull lines, powerful rig and a low centre of gravity bulb keel have created a fast, stiff, comfortable passage maker, which has been regularly proven at Oyster Regattas. While good performance is important, the 545 offers cruising comfort, with a generously proportioned cockpit fitted with a substantial fixed table.

The Oyster 545’s three-cabin layout, combined with a long waterline length, generous beam and headroom, creates a spacious, light and airy living area.

The hull meets the deck via a modern superyacht styled rollover bulwark, which gives a clean contemporary look to the yacht and a sleek, curved deck saloon style gives the yacht a stunning outboard profile from any angle.


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Oyster 595  Picture extracted from the commercial documentation © Oyster

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Auxilary power, accomodations, calculations.

The theoretical maximum speed that a displacement hull can move efficiently through the water is determined by it's waterline length and displacement. It may be unable to reach this speed if the boat is underpowered or heavily loaded, though it may exceed this speed given enough power. Read more.

Classic hull speed formula:

Hull Speed = 1.34 x √LWL

Max Speed/Length ratio = 8.26 ÷ Displacement/Length ratio .311 Hull Speed = Max Speed/Length ratio x √LWL

Sail Area / Displacement Ratio

A measure of the power of the sails relative to the weight of the boat. The higher the number, the higher the performance, but the harder the boat will be to handle. This ratio is a "non-dimensional" value that facilitates comparisons between boats of different types and sizes. Read more.

SA/D = SA ÷ (D ÷ 64) 2/3

  • SA : Sail area in square feet, derived by adding the mainsail area to 100% of the foretriangle area (the lateral area above the deck between the mast and the forestay).
  • D : Displacement in pounds.

Ballast / Displacement Ratio

A measure of the stability of a boat's hull that suggests how well a monohull will stand up to its sails. The ballast displacement ratio indicates how much of the weight of a boat is placed for maximum stability against capsizing and is an indicator of stiffness and resistance to capsize.

Ballast / Displacement * 100

Displacement / Length Ratio

A measure of the weight of the boat relative to it's length at the waterline. The higher a boat’s D/L ratio, the more easily it will carry a load and the more comfortable its motion will be. The lower a boat's ratio is, the less power it takes to drive the boat to its nominal hull speed or beyond. Read more.

D/L = (D ÷ 2240) ÷ (0.01 x LWL)³

  • D: Displacement of the boat in pounds.
  • LWL: Waterline length in feet

Comfort Ratio

This ratio assess how quickly and abruptly a boat’s hull reacts to waves in a significant seaway, these being the elements of a boat’s motion most likely to cause seasickness. Read more.

Comfort ratio = D ÷ (.65 x (.7 LWL + .3 LOA) x Beam 1.33 )

  • D: Displacement of the boat in pounds
  • LOA: Length overall in feet
  • Beam: Width of boat at the widest point in feet

Capsize Screening Formula

This formula attempts to indicate whether a given boat might be too wide and light to readily right itself after being overturned in extreme conditions. Read more.

CSV = Beam ÷ ³√(D / 64)

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Behavior of oxygen in the ladle treatment of 08X18H10T high-alloy steel

  • Published: 27 February 2014
  • Volume 43 , pages 684–689, ( 2013 )

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sailboatdata oyster

  • E. V. Shil’nikov 1 ,
  • A. V. Alpatov 2 &
  • S. N. Paderin 1  

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The actual activity of oxygen in liquid metal is determined by means of sensors during the ladle treatment of 08X18H10T high-alloy steel. The activity of the components of the metallic and oxide solutions is calculated by means of models of a pseudosubregular solution for the liquid metal and a pseudoregular solution for the oxide slag. The corresponding energy parameters were determined in previous research. A formula is derived for the activity of oxygen in equilibrium with the components of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si-C-Al-Ti liquid steel, eight-component FeO-MnO-CaO-MgO-SiO 2 -CrO 1.5 -AlO 1.5 -TiO 2 slag, and the gas phase. It is found that the metal-slag-gas system at the end of reduction is considerably closer to equilibrium than at the end of oxidation. The development of the reduction process is studied in terms of the difference in chemical potentials of the actual and equilibrium oxygen.

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Turkdogan, E.T., Physical Chemistry of High-Temperature Technology , New York: Academic, 1980.

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Kulikov, I.S., Raskislenie metallov (The Reduction of Metals), Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1975.

Alpatov, A.V. and Paderin, S.N., Metally , 2009, no. 5, pp. 21–29.

Alpatov, A.V. and Paderin, S.N., Elektrometallurgiya , 2009, no. 9, pp. 28–36.

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Steelmaking Data Source Book , New York: Gordon and Breach, 1988, rev. ed.

Paderin, S.N. and Alpatov, A.V., Elektrometallurgiya , 2008, no. 9, pp. 34–41.

Shil’nikov, E.V., Alpatov, A.V., and Paderin, S.N., Elektrometallurgiya , 2013, no. 7, pp. 25–31.

Prigogine, I. and Kondepudi, D., Contemporary Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures , New York: Wiley, 1998.

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OAO Metallurgicheskii Zavod Elektrostal’, Moscow, Russia

E. V. Shil’nikov & S. N. Paderin

Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow, Russia

A. V. Alpatov

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Original Russian Text © E.V. Shil’nikov, A.V. Alpatov, S.N. Paderin, 2013, published in “Izvestiya VUZ. Chernaya Metallurgiya,” 2013, No. 11, pp. 19–24.

About this article

Shil’nikov, E.V., Alpatov, A.V. & Paderin, S.N. Behavior of oxygen in the ladle treatment of 08X18H10T high-alloy steel. Steel Transl. 43 , 684–689 (2013). https://doi.org/10.3103/S0967091213110181

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Received : 09 September 2013

Published : 27 February 2014

Issue Date : November 2013

DOI : https://doi.org/10.3103/S0967091213110181

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  19. Behavior of oxygen in the ladle treatment of 08X18H10T high ...

    Abstract. The actual activity of oxygen in liquid metal is determined by means of sensors during the ladle treatment of 08X18H10T high-alloy steel. The activity of the components of the metallic and oxide solutions is calculated by means of models of a pseudosubregular solution for the liquid metal and a pseudoregular solution for the oxide slag.